The Kyoto Protocol (1997) which preceded this document, obliged the participating countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% compared to the 1990 level. The Paris Agreement does not set global standards for reducing emissions, and each member country determines the targets independently (it is assumed that the parties to the agreement will revise them every five years). For countries that do not achieve the declared indicators, «penalties» are not provided but the registration of such countries is kept in order to provide them with possible assistance.
It does not establish an agreement and strict limits on mitigation of CO2 emission targets, however, if they are not met, the participating country may incur reputational costs and be subject to pressure from the world community and the media. After the expiration of a minimum three-year membership period (not counting the time required for legalization of the issue), a member country may withdraw from the Paris Agreement.
To achieve this long-term temperature target, countries are striving to reach a global peak in greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible so that the world becomes climate neutral by mid-century.
The Paris Agreement marks a milestone in the multilateral climate change process as, for the first time, a binding agreement brings all countries together to embark on an ambitious effort to combat and adapt to climate change.